Primals Inventories Administration Instructions

Researchers interested in using our scale do not need permission. That said, we would love to hear about what you are exploring and may be able to help in some way (i.e. potential for funding, collaboration, etc.) so please feel free to contact us! All versions of the Primals Inventory (PI-99, PI-18, and PI-6) along with survey administration, and scoring instructions are available in this PDF. Further information can be found on pages 272-281 of Clifton and colleagues’ (2019) supplemental document.

Note: The Primals Inventory is “© 2018 by Jeremy D. W. Clifton. All rights reserved.” and Jer has decided to make the Primals Inventory available to everyone for free indefinitely. Don’t try to monetize this resource! You’ll get in trouble.

Translations of the Primals Inventory

Primals Inventory translations have been completed or are underway in several languages including Arabic, German, Hebrew, Indonesian, Italian, Korean and Spanish. We welcome and support additional translations. The Primals Inventory Translation Guide is a working document with guidelines and advice for anyone undertaking such a project.

Foundational Article

Clifton, J. D. W., Baker, J. D., Park, C. L., Yaden, D. B., Clifton, A. B. W., Terni, P., Miller, J. L., Zeng, G., Giorgi S., Schwartz, H. A., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2019). Primal world beliefs. Psychological Assessment, 31(1), 82-99. Free full text PDF available at researchgate.

Select Publications

Clifton, J. D. W., & Yaden, D. B. (2021). Brief measures of the four highest-order primal world beliefs. Psychological Assessment. Advance online publication.

Vazquez, C., Valiente, C., García, F.E. et al. Post-Traumatic Growth and Stress-Related Responses During the COVID-19 Pandemic in a National Representative Sample: The Role of Positive Core Beliefs About the World and Others. Journal of Happiness Studies (2021).

Clifton, J. D. W. (2020). Happy in a crummy world: Implications of primal world beliefs for increasing well-being through positive psychology interventions. Journal of Positive Psychology. Free full text pdf available at researchgate.

Clifton, J. D. W. (2020). Testing if primal world beliefs reflect experiences—At least some experiences identified ad hoc. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1145 full text pdf available at researchgate.

Stahlmann, A. G., Hofmann, J., Ruch, W., Heinz, S., & Clifton, J. D. W. (2020). The higher-order structure of primal world beliefs in German-speaking countries: Adaptation and initial validation of the German Primals Inventory (GPI-66). Personality and Individual Differences, 163, 110054. Free full text pdf available at researchgate.

Clifton, J. D., & Kim, E. S. (2020). Healthy in a crummy world: Implications of primal world beliefs for health psychology. Medical Hypotheses, 135, 109463. full text PDF available here.